Grapes concern perennial plants. His life time is subdivided into three stages. The youth begins with 5 and lasts till 10 years. The maturity – a stage of the maximum harvesting – proceeds on the average till 30 years. More often it depends on a plant grade. An old age – till 100 years and more.
The technology of cultivation of a grapevine passed from father to son until in the XIX-th century beginning there was no science about grapes cultivation – ampelografion. It synthesised and has generalised the knowledge saved up by centuries and experience of wine makers. Has answered questions where and how to put various grades of grapes, how to look after a plant, to achieve top yields when it is necessary to collect clusters in various climatic zones.
Now the grapevine as a plant is classified on following parametres:
– on a geographical arrangement:
– to destination:
Table grapes use in food;
Grapes for wine manufacture;
Grapes for manufacture of cognacs, juice, concentrates;
– on quality:
For collection wines;
For vintage wines;
For ordinary wines;
– on maturing terms:
Very early maturing;
Very later maturing;
– on colour of received wine:
– on the most suitable regionalno-climatic arrangement.
From 5000 kinds of a grapevine known for today only 500 are suitable for winemaking and 100 – 150 – are used for industrial manufacturing of wine. Only about 50 countries of the world grow up grapes and make this noble drink. Their number includes such regions, as Europe which occupies 70 – 75 % wine market, Asia – 17 %, America – 10 – 15 %, Africa – 14 % and Ocenia – 1 – 2 %.
Each grade of grapes has the individual characteristics. For example, the Muscat gives fault flower aroma and taste, Sovinon Blan – grassy. It depends on a parity in fruits of acid and tannins. It is necessary to notice that taste of berries also depends on quantity of a moisture, a sunlight, a wind and temperature. Classical traditional taste the grapes which have been grown up only on the historical native land possess. These grades are used for a long time in winemaking and give fine wines, therefore they are called as “royal”:
– Shardone and Pino Nuar – Burgundy in France;
– Kaberne Sovinon – Bordeaux in France;
– Sira – area of Northern Rhone, France;
– Shenen Blan – a valley of Loire, France;
– Nebbolo – Piedmont, Italy;
– Sanzhoveze – Toskan, Italy;
– Risling – Mozelsky and Rhine areas of Germany.