Prior to the beginning of a XIX-th century grapes put in a chaotic order, and only then landings began to organise equal numbers – so a plant to look after easier. Some time ago for the supporting rods were used exclusively concrete columns which now actively replace with the wooden. It is impossible to tell precisely, what for it becomes, maybe, concrete negatively influences taste of fruits, and can, at ploughing they are touched with a tractor. Since bible times in optimum height of a plant it is considered 60 sm, the top runaway divide on two branches supported by strings which fasten to columns. From history it is known that vineyards were carefully protected not only from animals, but also from thieves. On plantation perimetre enclosed with stone walls, and in the centre there was a three-metre watchtower.
Especially an important point in care of a grapevine is the irrigation. For example, on the Sinai Peninsula practised such method. At roots of plants put the big stones for which surfaces the dew formed from difference of day and night temperatures gathered. This moisture made 1/4 from a quantity of water necessary for grapes. However it is a lot of water too it is bad. Rain thunder-storms on the eve of harvesting lead watered juice that worsens quality of grapes.
As to a climate is better hot weather. Therefore in areas with a cool climate it is necessary to put early ripening varieties, for example, Shardone. And here grapes of Semijon never will ripen in cool climatic zones. It is necessary to approach to grade selection rather cautiously that the ripened fruits contained optimum balance of sugar and acid. For example, in France thermophilic Pino Nuar is put in hardly by more cool areas, therefore manufacture of the Burgundian red wines long since endures that dazzling success, a total failure. In warm regions the main task of the wine maker – not to allow to grapes to ripen too quickly, differently flavouring qualities of fruits will not have time to reach peak. Therefore some farmers reap a crop before the term in order the wine contain more percent of acid .
The main problem is the problem of fertilizers. If in the XX-th century herbicides and pesticides now there is an opinion were widely applied that the chemistry worsens taste of grapes and, accordingly, wine. Therefore use of compost and natural methods of pest control of a grapevine becomes more and more popular, besides it promotes restoration of microbiological structure of soil. ;
There is a set of subtleties of cultivation of grapes. For example, cutting or a garter of leaves which can cover clusters of grapes from the sun. Moreover, they promote formation of the damp environment round fruits that can promote mould and decay occurrence. As a result grapes badly grow ripe, and wine from it turns out sour.
Also it is necessary to pay attention to earth type. Stony, sandy and loamy soils concern to warm ground that promotes faster ripening of fruits. And clay and limy soils require good drainage system. In zones with warm environmental conditions it is possible to manage and without a drainage. Some grades of grapes are rather exacting to a ground. For example, Kaberne Sovinon gives a top yield only on the stony earth Bordo, and the grade of Shardone comfortably feels on limy soils of the French province Champagne.
In ancient times, to thank the earth for a rich crop, the wine maker dug out a hole on a plantation and squeezed out in it of a few juice of the collected fruits, thereby «allowing to the earth to enjoy wines».